What Charles Duhigg Taught Me About Motivation

Motivation is the drive to get things done. We all need it every day, and often it comes from the outside, like a boss looking over our shoulder. But how do we find motivation when there is no external source? How do we cultivate it inwardly?

Charles Duhigg in his book Smarter, Faster, Better: The Transformative Power of Real Productivity spends the first chapter explaining how to cultivate a mindset of motivation.

He first states that motivation can be learned:

Motivation is more like a skill, akin to reading or writing, that can be learned and honed. Scientists have found that people can get better at self-motivation if they practice the right way.

For Duhigg, there are two main ways that we can learn self-motivation.

  1. Cultivate an Internal Locus of Control

An internal locus of control is the: “belief we can influence our destiny through the choices we make.” We must internalize the truth that our actions largely determine what our lives will be like:

The trick, researchers say is realizing that a prerequisite to motivation is believing we have authority over our actions and surroundings. To motivate ourselves, we must feel like we are in control.

Duhigg documents how an internal locus of control improves people’s wellbeing:

People with an internal locus of control tend to earn more money, have more friends, stay married longer, and report greater professional success and satisfaction.

  1. Connect the Task to What You Care About Most

Duhigg advises starting with “why,” i.e., reminding ourselves about the overarching purposes behind our actions:

Once we start asking why, those small tasks become pieces of a larger constellation of meaningful projects, goals, and values.

Duhigg gives the example of marines struggling through a grueling training exercise at the end of a thirteen-week boot camp. It involved using wooden planks to cross a pit the size of a football field while wearing full gear and not being allowed to touch the ground.

“Why are you doing this?” Quintanilla’s pack buddy whezzed at him… When things are at their most miserable, their drill instructors had said, they should ask each other questions that begin with “why.” “To become a Marine and build a better life for my family.” Quintanilla said.

By linking the struggle to something he cared about, this Marine found the motivation to push through, complete his training and achieve his goal of providing a better life for his family.

For me, implementing this looks like asking: Why should I get off YouTube and focus on homework? Why should I get up early and start my routine? Why is it important to reply to this email?

When I remember to ask the questions, the answers kindle motivation.



Negativity Bias and Possible Solutions

Negativity bias is the phenomena whereby our brains are naturally predisposed to focus on, remember and be affected by negative experiences, far more than positive experiences.

Negativity bias was probably essential in helping our ancestors survive the stone age. Remembering where predators lurked (a negative fact) was far more crucial to survival than remembering the location of berries (a positive fact). You could find other food, but being attacked by a sabretooth tiger was probably fatal.

In the present, however, Psychologist Dr. Rick Hanson calls negativity bias, “a kind of universal learning disability.” He describes some of the effects of negativity bias in his book Resilient:

  1. [The human brain] Scans for bad news out in the world and inside the body and mind.

  2. Focuses tightly on it, losing sight of the big picture

  3. Overreacts to it

  4. Fast-tracks the experience into emotional, somatic and social memory

  5. Becomes sensitized through repeated doses of the stress hormone cortisol, so it becomes even more reactive to negative experiences – which bathe the brain in even more cortisol, creating a vicious cycle

With a little introspection, most of us can probably recognize negativity bias in our daily lives. Have you ever experienced an unkind word that stuck with you all day? Contrast that with the pleasant things you probably experienced on that same day: a warm shower, tasty food, conversations with friends, or reading a good book. At the end of the day, do any of these experiences stand out as much as one unpleasant conversation? Probably not.

Negativity bias is an innate trait, so we can’t get rid of it, but we can mitigate its effects. Dr. Hanson emphasizes the principle of neuroplasticity, which is the idea that: “the brain is continually remodeling itself as you learn from your experiences.” No matter what bad habits or negative experiences you carry around with you, they don’t have to define your neurological makeup, because your brain is continually adapting.

This is good news because it means that as you practice, experience and emphasize certain types of behavior, your brain adapts and conforms. Thus, if you practice being positive, your brain will become more positive too.

This may sound good in the abstract, but what does this process look like in the specifics? Shawn Achor, author of The Happiness Advantage and one of the leading figures in the field of positive psychology suggests these seven actions that can help us infuse more positivity into our lives:

  1. Meditate

  2. Find something to look forward to

  3. Practice Purposeful Acts of Kindness

  4. Infuse Positivity into Surroundings – like pictures of loved ones or a favorite houseplant

  5. Exercise

  6. Spend money on activities, not things

  7. Exercise a signature strength – a skill you have cultivated over time

I have found all of these suggestions helpful. Daily journaling is another practice that has been especially beneficial, as it focuses my attention on positive experiences that I have throughout the day.